If you sell or rent a home, an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) must be required to indicate the property’s energy efficiency. EPCs were introduced in 2007 and remain valid for 10 years. You must obtain an EPC under UK law. This article explains the EPC process and how to obtain one.

What is an EPC rating, and what does it mean?

Properties are evaluated for their energy efficiency on a scale ranging from A to G. A rating of A indicates the highest energy efficiency. In contrast, a G rating implies low energy efficiency leading to higher fuel bills.

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The certificate uses shades of green to indicate A-C ratings, yellow for the middle rating of D, and shades of orange for E and F ratings, while G ratings are displayed in red.

The energy efficiency rating of a property is indicated by a number between 1-100 on the arrow. A higher number signifies better energy efficiency, while a lower number implies the opposite. The certificate also displays the possible rating if you implement the recommended improvements.

Since April 2018, it has been illegal to rent out a property that doesn’t meet the Minimum Energy Efficiency Standard (MEES), which requires rental properties to have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) rating of E or higher.

In England and Wales, there are new regulations that apply to almost all privately rented properties. Landlords who fail to comply with these regulations could face fines of up to £4,000. To meet the minimum standard of E or higher for energy efficiency, you’ll need to improve your property, such as proper insulation to prevent heat loss through walls and roof and adding new seals to windows or doors.

What other information does the EPC show?

The EPC provides information about a property’s energy efficiency rating and estimated energy costs for lighting, heating, and hot water over three years. It also suggests potential energy savings if the property is made more efficient and a list of recommended actions, such as installing low-energy lighting or high-heat retention storage heaters.

Furthermore, the report includes a summary of the energy efficiency characteristics of the property and their rating on a scale of zero to five stars. The language used for the report is English (Great Britain).


How to find out what your EPC rating is

To find out your property’s EPC rating, you can search for it on the EPC register. If your property doesn’t have an EPC rating, you’ll have to hire an accredited assessor to visit and produce a certificate. If you live in England, Wales or Northern Ireland, you can look for an assessor on the EPC register. However, if you live in Scotland, you must search on the Scottish EPC register.


How is an EPC rating calculated?

During an EPC rating assessment, the assessor will evaluate features of your home, such as windows, roof insulation, and lighting, to determine the property’s energy efficiency. Your home will earn points for each energy-efficient feature. After the assessment, the assessor will use software to calculate the energy rating and produce a certificate. A top A rating requires 92-100 points, while the least efficient homes with a G rating receive only 1-20 points.


How much does it cost to get an EPC rating?

The cost of an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) depends on the location of your property and its size. The price range generally starts from £35 and can go up to £120 or higher. Getting quotes from two or three different assessors before committing is advisable to ensure you get the best deal.

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How to improve your EPC rating

Improving your EPC rating can be achieved by making your home more energy efficient through various methods. Some examples include upgrading your old and inefficient boiler to a condensing boiler, fitting cavity and roof insulation, and installing double glazing. Having low-energy lighting throughout your property can also positively impact your EPC rating.

Frequently Asked Questions

An Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) is a certificate that confirms how energy-efficient your property is. It is required if you’re selling your house or flat ¹.

The cost of an EPC varies depending on the size of your property and where you live. The average cost of an EPC in England is around £60 ¹.

An EPC lasts for 10 years ¹.

An EPC contains information about your property’s energy use and typical energy costs, as well as recommendations about how to reduce energy use and save money ¹.

An EPC can only be produced by a qualified Domestic Energy Assessor (DEA) ¹.

You need an EPC if you’re selling your house or flat ¹.

You can get an EPC from a qualified Domestic Energy Assessor (DEA) ¹.

If you don’t have an EPC when selling your property, you could be fined up to £5,000 ¹.

Yes, you can improve your property’s energy efficiency rating by making changes such as installing loft insulation or double glazing ¹.

The penalty for not having an EPC when selling your property can be up to £5,000 ¹.


  1. EPC certificates explained – Which? https://www.which.co.uk/money/mortgages-property/home-movers/selling-a-house/epcs-explained-aueSX6F3r1nX
  2. A guide to Energy Performance Certificates for the construction https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/energy-performance-certificates-for-the-construction-sale-and-let-of-non-dwellings–2/a-guide-to-energy-performance-certificates-for-the-construction-sale-and-let-of-non-dwellings
  3. Improving Energy Performance Certificates: action plan https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/improving-energy-performance-certificates-action-plan-progress-report/improving-energy-performance-certificates-action-plan-progress-report
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